The first half of this pamphlet explores the workings of slavery as a "contagion" (11) within human societies. It gives a historical overview of how colonial slavery came to exist, early abolitionist efforts, the revolution in Saint Domingue, and the first French abolition of slavery from 1794-1802. Fleury then replies to some common pro-slavery points, citing parliamentary reports and statistics showing the positive effects of emancipation in the British colonies, as well as example cases from the British, French and Dutch colonies to support his argument for "immediate, simultaneous, radical abolition" (42) as the only solution for the French colonies. France's reputation as an advocate of universal human rights is stressed, and Fleury calls for Lyon to contribute signatures to the national petition currently circulating, arguing that to allow Denmark, Sweden and Tunisia to 'overtake' France in this area would be "more than a shame [..] it would be a crime for our country" (42).
A number of appendices include statistical tables comparing the population and economy of the French and British colonies, and comparisons of plantation running costs in the British West Indies before and after slavery was abolished.
Fleury also cites a variety of (mainly British and French) sources, including Clarkson's Essay on Slavery, Schoelcher's articles in the Revue Indépendante and his book Des Colonies Françaises, Pamphile Lacroix and Malenfant on Haiti, British parliamentary reports, Long's History of Jamaica, and Grégoire’s De la littérature des nègres.